The word advertising refers to any kind of public announcement that brings products and services to the attention of people．Throughout history, advertising has been an effective way to promote(促进)the trading and selling of goods．In the Middle Ages，merchants employed “town criers” to read public messages aloud to promote their goods．When printing was invented in the fifteenth century, pages of advertisements (ads) could be printed easily and were either hung in public places or put in books．
By the end of the seventeenth century, when newspapers were beginning to be read by more people, printed materials became an important way to promote products and services．The London Gazette was the first newspaper to set aside a place just for advertising. This was so successful that by the end of the century several companies started businesses for the purpose of making newspaper ads for merchants．
Advertising spread quickly throughout the eighteenth century．Ad writers were starting to pay more attention to the design of the ad text．Everything，from clothes to drinks，was promoted with clever methods such as repetition of the firm’s name or product, words organized in eye-catching patterns，the use of pretty pictures and expressions easy to remember．
Near the end of the nineteenth century, companies that were devoted to the production of ads came to be known as “advertising agencies (广告商)” . The agencies developed new ways to get people to think of themselves as members of a group．Throughout the twentieth century, advertising agencies promoted consumerism(消费主义)as a way of life，spreading the belief that people could be happy only if they bought the “right” products.
1.What was advertising like in the Middle Ages?
A．Merchants were employed to promote products．
B．Ad messages were shouted out in public places．
C．Product information was included in books．
D．Ad signs were put up in towns．
2.What does the word “This” in Paragraph 2 refer to?
A．Advertising in newspapers． B．Including pictures in ads．
C．Selling goods in markets． D．Working with ad agencies．
3.The l8th century advertising was special in its______．
A. growing spending B．printing materials
C．advertising companies D．attractive designs
4.Which of the following might be the best title for the text?
A．The Story of Advertising
B．The Value of Advertising Designs
C．The Role of Newspaper Advertising
D．The Development of Printing for Advertising
1.细节理解题。根据第一段In the Middle Ages，merchants employed “town criers” to read public messages aloud to promote their goods可知，在中世纪商人让人把广告大声读出来。由此可知选B。
2.词义猜测题。根据第二估提到The London Gazette was the first newspaper to set aside a place just for advertising.可知，此处This指在报纸上给广告留出地方这件事。故选A。
3.推理判断题。根据第三段Ad writers were starting to pay more attention to the design of the ad text．可知，在18世纪，广告撰写人开始注意广告的内容，为各种产品设计出丰富多彩的广告。故选D。
4.主旨大意题。本文根据第一句话提到The word advertising refers to any kind of public announcement that brings products and services to the attention of people讲了广告的历史。所以选A
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届陕西省高二下第一次月考英语试卷（解析版） 题型：单项填空
E-mail, as well as telephones, ________ an important part in daily communication.
A．is playing B．have played
C．are playing D．play
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届辽宁省鞍山市高二下学期期末英语试卷（解析版） 题型：其他题
Manager: May I help you, Madam?
Customer: Yes, I`m sorry to trouble you, 1. I would really like to change my room.
Manager: I am sorry to hear that. What is the problem?
Customer: We 2. (book) a double room with 3. beach view at 2000 dollars per night, but the room we were given has a garden view. And you know that rooms with the beach view are 15 dollars 4. (high) than those with the garden view, don`t you?
Manager: Yes, I see your point. But Madam, there are only single rooms with the beach view 5. (leave).
Customer:What? It is your mistake---you 6. do something about it!
Manager:How about 7. (change) a room with a city view? It is the same price 8. the room with the beach view.
Customer: I appreciate 9. , but I am really not crazy about a city view. The room would 10. (probable) be noisy at night, with all that traffic outside.
Manager: OK. What do you think if we give you the 15 dollars back?
Customer: That sounds great.
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届辽宁省大连市五校高二下尖子生竞赛英语试卷（解析版） 题型：短文改错
Throughout history man has changed their physical environment in order to improve his way of life. With the tools of technology that he has changed many physical features of the earth. Thus, man’s change to the physical environment have not always had beneficial results. Today, pollution of the air and water is a increasing danger to the health of the planet. Like we know, massive destruction of environment has brought in negative effects and even poses a great threat to man’s existence. Therefore, effective measures should be taken and laws pass to conserve environment. Otherwise, man is certain to suffer the serious consequences causing by this lack of care for his living surroundings.
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届辽宁省大连市五校高二下尖子生竞赛英语试卷（解析版） 题型：阅读理解
About six years ago I was eating lunch in a restaurant in New York City when a woman and a young boy sat down at the next table. I couldn’t help overhearing parts of their conversation. At one point the woman asked,“So, how have you been?”And the boy who could not have been more than seven or eight years old replied,“Frankly, I’ve been feeling a little depressed lately.”
This incident stuck in my mind because it strengthened my growing belief that children are changing. As far as I can remember, my friends and I didn’t find out we were“depressed”until we were in high school.
The evidence of a change in children has increased steadily in recent years. Children don’t seem childlike any more. Children speak more like adults, dress more like adults and behave more like adults than they used to.
Whether this is good or bad is difficult to say, but it certainly is different. Childhood as it once was no longer exists. Why?
Human development is based not only on born biological states, but also on patterns of access to social knowledge. Movement from one social role to another usually involves learning the secrets of the new situation. Children have always been taught adult secrets, but slowly and in stages: traditionally, we tell sixth graders things we keep hidden from fifth graders.
In the last 30 years, however, a secret-revelation machine has been fixed in 98 percent of American homes. It is called television. Television passes information, indiscriminately, to all viewers alike, whether they are children or adults. Unable to resist the temptation, many children turn their attention from printed texts to the less challenging, more vivid moving pictures.
Communication through print, as a matter of fact, allows for a great deal of control over the social information to which children have access. Reading and writing involve a complex code of symbols that must be memorized and practised. Children must read simple books before they can read complex materials.
1.Traditionally, a child is supposed to learn about the adult world _________ .
A. through touch with society
B. gradually and under guidance
C. naturally and by biological instinct
D. through exposure to social information
2.In the author’s opinion, the phenomenon that today’s children seem adultlike is caused by _____.
A. the widespread influence of television
B. the poor arrangement of teaching content
C. the fast step of human intellectual development
D. the constantly rising standard of living
3. Why is the author in favor of communication through print for children?
A. It enables children to gain more social information.
B. It develops children’s interest in reading and writing.
C. It helps children to memorize and practise more.
D. It can control what children are to learn.
4.What does the author think of the change in today’s children?
A. He feels amused by the children’s adultlike behavior.
B. He thinks it is a phenomenon worthy of note.
C. He considers it a positive development.
D. He seems to be upset about it.
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届福建省高二下学期期中英语试卷（解析版） 题型：单项填空
He was very rude to the Customs officer, _____ of course made things even worse.
A. who B. whom C. that D. which
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届福建省高二下学期期中英语试卷（解析版） 题型：单项填空
We must _____ a new chair for the broken one.
A. instead B. instead of
C. substitute D. take the place
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届福建省福州市高二下期末英语试卷（解析版） 题型：单项填空
Not ever to “Shanzhamei”, a country girl, that she could be the first runner-up of 2013 on the Avenue of stars, CCTV .
A. it occurred B. it occurs
C. has it occurred D. did it occur
科目：高中英语 来源：2015届福建省高二下学期期中考试英语卷（解析版） 题型：阅读理解
This year the selfie earned its place as the Oxford English Dictionary’s 2013 Word Of The Year. It has taken over our culture --- and our smartphones. The rise of the selfie has become universal–between presidents, celebrities(名人) and citizens alike–and the trend is only continuing to grow.
A recent survey conducted by the Pew Internet & American Life Project found that 54 percent of Internet users have posted original photos online. And of those hundreds of millions of photos, many are of selfie photos.
For example, currently there are nearly 62 million posted selfie photos on Instagram, the social media tool that has significantly contributed to the personal photo’s popularity. That figure, which continues to rise every day, doesn’t even begin to include the selfies shared on Facebook and Twitter.
What makes the selfie so attractive -- and why do we feel it a must to take one? According to Dr. Pamela Rutledge, psychologist and director of the Media Psychology Research Center, the desire to take, post and get “likes” on selfies goes back to a biological behavior of all humans.
“I think it influences our sense of social connection in the same way as it does when you go to a party and people say ‘Oh I love your dress,’” Rutledge told The Huffington Post. “Biological, social recognition is a real need and there is even an area of the brain that contributes to social activity.”
There is a way to adapt to the growing selfie culture. Whether you’re a selfie novice or an advanced poster, there are always things to be mindful of when you’re posting, Rutledge advises.
She offered two main principles to follow when it comes to posting on social media:
1. The Grandmother Rule
“Don’t post anything online, whether text or visual, that you don’t want grandmother or future employer to see,” Rutledge said. “Selfies especially.”
2. The Elevator Rule
“You wouldn’t say something in an elevator that you or no one else wants to hear -- the whole world of social media is an elevator,” Rutledge said. “Be aware of the breadth (宽度) of platform. It’s easy to think you’re sharing a photo with a few people, but Instagram is public and people can come across things.”
1.What’s the main idea of the first paragraph?
A. The selfie is taking the lead.
B. Many people are fond of smartphones.
C. The selfie will take over everything.
D. The selfie is an important new word.
2. According to the passage, people like “selfie” so much, because they ___________.
A. want to show off their new dresses
B. need to be acknowledged in social life
C. desire to share good things
D. mean to amuse the public
3. The underlined word “novice” in Paragraph 6 probably means “________”.
A. greenhandB. publisher C. novelistD. celebrity
4.When it comes to posting on social media, Rutledge advises people to ______.
A. share photos only on Instagram
B. talk about your photos in an elevator
C. be cautious in posting things online
D. follow rules set by your grandmothers